Antidepressants and opioids are common offenders.
- Antidepressants, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (Prozac) or tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline (Elavil). “A lot of antidepressants that treat the nerve endings in the brain also affect nerve endings in the gut. That can lead to significant side effects,” says Dr. Braden Kuo, a gastroenterologist at Harvard-affiliated Massachusetts General Hospital.
- Opioids, such as oxycodone (OxyContin) and hydrocodone (Vicodin). “The narcotic effect can cause nerves in the gut to ‘sleep,’ inhibiting movement,” explains Dr. Kuo.
- Calcium-channel blockers, such as diltiazem (Cardizem). These drugs relax